Chen Guangzu: What will arctic Methane burst do to the global greenhouse effect (5)
In the climate science community, it has always been believed that carbon dioxide is the dominant gas of the earth’s greenhouse effect. The proportion of methane and other gases is considered very low, that is, its equivalent is equivalent to 1/1000 of carbon dioxide, so less attention is paid to it.In February 2021, a methane eruption was discovered in some parts of the Arctic. In many permafrost regions of the Arctic, high temperatures caused the ice to melt rapidly, forming lakes everywhere.Methane, previously buried deep beneath the ice, quickly bubbled up to the surface and into the atmosphere.Over the past 30 years, the average temperature of the earth’s surface has risen by less than 1°C, but this time the Arctic ocean is warming by 3°C, and in some places 5°C, creating an opportunity for evaporation to rise from the vast amount of methane buried in the ocean bed.Scientists believe that continuing arctic methane eruptions could create a vicious circle: first, they could adversely affect efforts to reduce global warming;The second is the potential danger of methane emission from more permafrost regions near the Arctic.Third, the outbreak of methane in the strata may bring bacteria and viruses deep in ancient times to the surface of the Earth with methane gas, which may cause some viral spread and epidemic in the world that is difficult to understand.The fourth is the burning or explosion of houses and rice fields for residents near the methane outbreak, as well as some human bodies causing headaches, fatigue, dyspnea and other problems.An analysis of data from the European Union’s Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (AMS) satellite has detected a wave of methane wildfires in the Arctic Ocean that could flare up again.Methane is a very simple organic matter, is the main component of natural gas, biogas, oil fields, coal mines, pit gas, etc., is also the lowest carbon content, the largest oxygen content of hydrocarbon.In the Arctic Ocean, scientists estimate that there are about 120 million tons of methane in 2,250 square kilometers of permafrost on 4 million square kilometers of the Arctic Circle. Methane ice gasification will produce 164 times more gas, and experts expect temperatures to rise to 7°C by the middle of the century.By the end of the century, temperatures in the northernmost ice sheet had risen to 10°C.There’s also a lot of methane in the Antarctic permafrost, so it’s all over the world.In many coastal areas around the world, the peak composition of combustible ice is also methane, commonly known as methane hydrate, which is trapped over many years to form crystals and become buried in the depths of the sea.On land, shale gas, which is also home to methane, cannot escape its roots, so it has become a “big neighbour” of human society.Stanford university earth research institute, thinks that in 2020 the global methane stock has reached 596 million tons, 30% of global methane from damp object in the earth’s natural wetlands, the decomposition of organic matter occurs methane fossil fuels accounts for about 25%, and agriculture accounts for about 20%, and in the storage property of cows and release of methane ruminant animals almost and fossil fuels.In a May 2021 report, unep and the Alliance for Climate and Clean Air concluded that 95 percent of methane emissions from human activities come from just three industries: the fossil fuel industry accounts for 35 percent, coal mining and burning and processing 20 percent, and primarily agriculture and livestock 40 percent.Authorities agree that methane is a small part of the greenhouse gas, but it traps a lot of heat, perhaps 23 times as much as carbon dioxide, and by some estimates 28 times as much.In August 2021, the UN’S IPCC noted that it was the first time it had put emphasis on controlling a more hidden enemy — methane, a colorless, odorless gas that has 28 times the warming power of carbon dioxide in the short term.The IPCC also said the concentration of methane in the atmosphere is now higher than at any time in the past 800,000 years.Methane emissions account for about 0.3 degrees Celsius of the 1 degree Celsius rise in global temperatures above pre-industrial levels.The potential impact of 10 tonnes of methane in the atmosphere on global warming is equivalent to about 85 tonnes of CO2, or one tonne of methane, equivalent to 80 tonnes of CO2.On December 15, 2021, the European Union established the Council system of the European Parliament on the Regulation and Amendment proposal of the Ministry of Energy in the face of Methane Emission Reduction. The European Union believes that under the background of increasing attention to methane emission reduction, it is clear that methane emission will be reduced by 58% in 2030 compared with 2020.Specifically, the accuracy of information sources related to methane emissions on energy production and consumption within the EU will ensure further effective reduction of methane emissions across the EU’s energy supply chain and improve information availability, thus facilitating the EU’s methane emission reduction programmes related to fossil energy.John Kerry, President Joe Biden’s climate envoy, said at a recent press conference that reducing methane leaks is a top priority for the Biden administration.Many U.S. companies now share environmental responsibility for reducing methane emissions.The US government needs to come up with new policies to balance rewards and penalties and protect the interests of companies that fulfill their emission reduction obligations.In 2020, former Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Tanaka said Japan would join the world’s global agreement to cut methane emissions and use as much renewable energy as possible, doubling its climate crisis aid to $14.8 billion.China also attaches great importance to methane emission reduction.The prevention and control of methane emission has been included in the five-year plan in the 14th and fifth Five-year Plans, and it is proposed that “efforts should be strengthened to strengthen the prevention and control of greenhouse gases such as methane, hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons.”In the report of the G20 Energy and Climate Summit held in Hangzhou on July 23, 2021, it was pointed out that: recognizing that methane emissions have a significant impact on climate change, and proposing that one of the most feasible and integrated effects to reduce methane emissions is to establish the international Methane Emission Prevention and Control Platform (IMEO).Xie Zhenhua, China’s special envoy for climate change, said that China has included methane emission control in its national work plan and made specific arrangements as an important project.In May 2021, led by CNPC, the Alliance of Methane Control and Emission Control of Chinese Petroleum Enterprises was established. The alliance specified that all member units should work together to include methane control and emission control into carbon emission reduction planning and comprehensively improve the level of methane emission control.We will strive to reduce the average emission intensity of methane from natural gas production to less than 0.25% by 2025, approaching the world’s advanced water level, and strive to reach the world’s first-class level by 2035.It can be seen that methane prevention and control and emission reduction work has become an important international action on climate change, and has received strong support from the United Nations and many governments.However, this work still has many problems in the exploratory stage, and it is a comprehensive and long-term measure facing many aspects of society, culture and science and technology, so it must have practical strength to prove and obtain results.On the other hand, according to scientists, methane gas will disappear after 10 years of operation. This is good news, but how many bad things it has done in 10 years, but it is expected to reform and innovate and benefit human society.Wang Zidong (director of the National 863 Ev Major Project Power Battery Test Center) and the author inspected new energy and new energy vehicles in the United States.